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Working Group on Retrospective Bibliographies

Remit

Early in 2022, CERL established a Working Group on Retrospective Bibliographies (RB) in order to:

  • Monitor and foster the role and impact of RB in the context of the Heritage of the Printed Book database
  • Monitor and define the role and impact of RB as separate databases hosted by CERL (on the model of ISTC, STCN)
  • Promote the role of RB in cooperation with IFLA: Register of national bibliographies
  • Define the role and impact of CERL in respect to RB, also in relation to the USTC
  • Promote the role of RB in the world of linked open data and research infrastructures: Role of identifiers, of linking, of authority records

The members for the RB Working Group are listed below.

Introduction

The Working Group's main focus is to identify electronic resources with bibliographical descriptions for nations' and regions' print cultures (up to 1850). Our dream is that one day these electronic bibliographies are linked and together offer a comprehensive overview of European prints before 1850. Libraries could then use this as the foundation for Linked Data for early printed books and link their catalogue records to relevant RB records.

In the years of book production to 1850 (and our collecting practices until the modern day), geographical boundaries have been fluid. It is therefore important to determine what geographical region is covered by any given retrospective bibliography project. This selection criterium, and several others (only books printed in the region, or also by people from the region residing elsewhere, coverage only of collections currently in the region, or also regional output now held elswhere, etc.) need to be taken into account.

In the Heritage of the Printed Book database, records for collections and records from retrospective bibliographies currently intermingle. The work of this Working Group will hopefully help CERL on its way to distinguish these two types of records and work with CERL member libraries to enrich catalogue records with references to permanent identifiers employed in Retrospective Bibliographies.

Conference 2023

The title of the conference was Retrospective Bibliographies and European Print Cultures to 1830 – Challenges and perspectives in the digital age and it will take place on 29 and 30 June 2023 at the Ossolineum Library in Wrocław.

The programme is available here.

The aim of the conference is to ensure that people who create RBs are aware of work in other countries and that sharing of data is part of the plan from the outset (which means e.g. ensuring there are stable identifiers, that standards are rigorously adhered to). We would also like to start a conversation about how CERL should treat these RBs in its data infrastructure? Currently there are three flavours at CERL, and we would like to explore with the conference partipants what is the best approach going forward:

  • hosting as a stand alone db (STCN / ISTC)
  • records incorporated in the HPB (the VDs, STCV, several others)
  • or both (STCN / ISTC records are both in the HPB and hosted in their stand alone environment)

List of Retrospective Bibliographies in Europe

This list was created by Olga Tkachuk (Ossoliński National Institute, Wrocław) and Chana Algarvio (University of Toronto, Canada) and covers bibliographies (national, regional, language-specific) in Europe. It is not comprehensive and will gradually be expanded with more detailed information.

Albania / Andorra / Austria / Belarus / Belgium (Flanders) / Bosnia and Herzegovina / Bulgaria / Croatia / Cyprus / Czech Republic / Denmark/ England/ Estonia / Finland / France / Germany / Greece / Hungary / Iceland / Ireland / Italy / Latvia / Liechtenstein / Lithuania / Luxembourg / Malta / Moldavia / Monaco / Montenegro / Netherlands / North Macedonia / Northern Ireland / Norway / Poland / Portugal / Romania / San Marino / Scotland
Serbia / Slovakia / Slovenia / Spain / Sweden / Switzerland / Ukraine / United Kingdom and Ireland / Wales / Pan-European

Albania

  • No electronic RB database
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Albania – the Department of the National Bibliography
  • Covered period: 1555-
  • Further information, also about several printed bibliographies and catalogues

Andorra

  • No electronic RB database
  • Responsible institution: the Andorra National Library (Biblioteca Nacional d’Andorra)
  • Selection criteria: “national” material created throughout the world. Information about Andorran publications issued before 1850 is contained in bibliographies, which are available only in printed form.

Austria

  • No electronic RB database
  • Responsible institution: the Austrian National Library (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) — the Department for Collection Development and Processing (Hauptabteilung Bestandsaufbau und Bearbeitung)
  • Selection criteria: works published in Austria or that are “Austriaca,” i.e., works about Austria or Austrians published abroad, and (translated) works from Austrian authors published abroad. Information about Austrian publications issued before 1850 is contained in bibliographies, which are available only in printed form.

Belarus

  • Electronic RB database (books to 1850 are included): http://eir.nlb.by (not comprehensive)
  • Period covered: from 1517 to date. The union electronic information resource (EIR) of the National Bibliography of Belarus provide functioning of universal bibliographic information about the entire repertory of different types of the national documents of Belarus (from 1517 to present day), which are kept in various institutions both in the country and abroad.
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Belarus – the National Bibliographic Department

Belgium

  • Period covered: before 1801
  • Identity number: STCV + database number
  • Responsible institution: the Flanders Heritage Library (Vlaamse Erfgoedbibliotheek) — the department of the Short Title Catalogue Flanders (Short Title Catalogus Vlaanderen)
  • Selection criteria: all books printed in present-day Flanders.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • No RB electronic database
  • Information about early printed books can be found in the Union Catalogue of B&H. This Catalogue incorporates the holdings of over 50 B&H libraries. The National and University Library catalogue is one of the catalogues that may be searched as part of the union catalogue or individually. Each record in the union catalogue includes links to the institutions that hold the title.
  • Responsible institution: the National and University Library of B&H – the Bibliographical Department (Odjeljenje bibliografije)
  • Further information, including printed bibliographies

Bulgaria

  • Electronic RB database (books to 1850 are included): http://books.unibit.bg/search
  • Period covered: 1801-1878
  • Information about early printed books from the collection of SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library are available in online library catalogues – “Cobiss”: https://bg.cobiss.net/ (bibliographic records) and Digital Library: http://82.147.128.134/sp/public/ (digital copies of books).
  • Responsible institution: SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library – the National Bibliographic Agency Department
  • Further information, including printed bibliographies

Croatia

  • Electronic RB database (books printed to 1850 are included): http://bibliografija.nsk.hr/hrb/HRB00/index.html (not comprehensive). The database is searchable by author, title, publisher and keywords, which are arranged alphabetically.
  • Period covered: 1500-1834
  • Identity number: HRB + catalogue number (Hrvatska Retrospektivna Bibliografia)
  • Responsible institution: the National and University Library in Zagreb (NSK) – Bibliographic Center
  • Further information, including printed resources

Cyprus

  • No bibliographies or databases with books printed before 1850 as the first printing house was established in 1878
  • Responsible institution: Cyprus Library

Czech Republic

Three electronic databases for publications to 1850

    • Identity number: KPS + database number
    • Responsible institution: the National Library of the Czech Republic in cooperation with the Manuscripts and Early Printed Books Department
    • Identity number: BCBT + database number
    • Responsible institution: Department of Historical Bibliography of the Academy of Sciences Library
    • Responsible institution: Department of Historical Bibliography of Academy of Sciences Library, Manuscripts and Early Printed Books Department of National Library of the Czech Republic, Masaryk Institute and Archives of the Czech Academy of Sciences

Denmark

  • Electronic RB database: bibliotek.dk/
  • Period covered: after 1840. Information about Danish publications issued before 1841 is contained in bibliographies, which are available only in printed form.
  • Identity number: database number
  • Responsible institution: the Danish Bibliographic Centre (Dansk BiblioteksCenter) and the Royal Danish Library (Det Kgl. Bibliotek)
  • Selection criteria: works (more than 16 pages long) published in Denmark.

England

  • No electronic RB database, but also see UK+Ireland below
  • Responsible institution: the British Library — the department of Contemporary British Collections
  • Selection criteria: all publishing activity of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.

Estonia

  • Electronic RB database (books printed to 1850 are included): https://www.nlib.ee/en/national-bibliography (not available at this moment)
    • Period covered: 1525-1940
    • Identity number: ERRB (Eesti retrospektiivse rahvusbibliograafia / Estonian retrospective national bibliography)
    • Responsible institution: the National Library of Estonia
  • Information about early printed books can be found in the Union Catalogue with Estonian publications, called ESTER
    • Identity number: ESTER
    • Responsible institution: ELNET Consortium
  • Further information, including printed bibliographies

Finland

  • Period covered: after 1487
  • Identity number: fikka + database number
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Finland (Kansalliskirjasto) — the department of the National Collection (Kansalliskokoelman)
  • Selection criteria: works published in Finland, publications by Finnish authors published abroad, and publications about Finland.

France

  • No electronic RB database. Information about French publications issued before 1850 is contained in bibliographies, which are available only in printed form.
  • Responsible institution for RB: National Library of France (Bibliothèque nationale de France) — the Department of Bibliographic and Digital Information (Département de l’information bibliographique et numérique)
  • Selection criteria: material published, printed and distributed in France.

Germany

Three electronic RB databases for books printed to 1850

    • Period covered: 1501–1600
    • Identity number: VD16 + database number
    • Responsible institution: the Bavarian State Library (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek) — the Department of Manuscripts and Rare Books (Abteilung Handschriften und Alte Drucke)
    • Selection criteria: all materials printed and published in German-speaking countries.
  1. Electronic database: VD17
    • Period covered: 1601–1700
    • Identity number: VD17 + database number
    • Responsible institution: the Head Office of the Common Library Network (Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbunds)
    • Selection criteria: all materials printed and published in the German language or in German-speaking countries.
  2. Electronic database: VD18
    • Period covered: 1701–1800
    • Identity number: VD18 + database number
    • Responsible institution: the Head Office of the Common Library Network (Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbunds)
    • Selection criteria: all materials printed and published in the German language or in German-speaking countries.

Greece

Hungary

  • Electronic RB database (books printed to 1850 are included): http://mnb.oszk.hu/index.php
  • Period covered: 1473 to date
  • Responsible institution: the National Széchényi Library; the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
  • Identification numbers: RMK,RMNY, Petrik (references to various printed catalogues)
  • Further information, including details of the printed bibliographies

Iceland

Two electronic RB databases for books printed to 1850

    • Period covered: 1534–1844
    • Identity number: abbreviated author name + publication date
    • Responsible institution: the National and University Library of Iceland (Landsbókasafn Íslands – Háskólabókasafn) — the department of the Icelandic National Collection
    • Selection criteria: all publications by Icelandic authors, works of foreign authors printed in Icelandic and by foreign authors in foreign languages if printed in Iceland..
  1. Electronic database: http://baekur.is/
    • Period covered: before 1870
    • Identity number: database number
    • Responsible institution: the National and University Library of Iceland (Landsbókasafn Íslands – Háskólabókasafn) — the department of Special Collections
    • Selection criteria: all Icelandic books published prior to 1870.

Ireland

  • No electronic RNB database. Information about Irish publications issued before 1850 is contained in bibliographies that encompass the entire printing output of English materials (see UK + Ireland document).
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Ireland
  • Selection criteria: all works on Irish history.

Italy

Two electronic RB databases for books printed to 1850

  1. Electronic database: EDIT16
    • Period covered: 1501–1600
    • Identity number: CNCE + database number
    • Responsible institution: Central Institute for the Union Catalogue of Italian Libraries and Bibliographic Information (ICCU - Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico delle Biblioteche Italiane e per le Informazioni Bibliografiche) — Department for the Bibliography, Cataloguing and Survey of Early Printed Books (Area di attività per la bibliografia, la catalogazione e il censimento del libro antico)
    • Selection criteria: all works published in Italy, in any language, and works published abroad in the Italian language.
  2. Electronic database: Biblioteca italiana
    • Period covered: medieval–19th century
    • Identity number: bibit/ia/si + database number
    • Responsible institution: Sapienza University of Rome (Sapienza Università di Roma) — Department of Letters and Modern Cultures (Dipartimento di Lettere e Culture Moderne)
    • Selection criteria: works representative of the Italian cultural and literary tradition.

Latvia

Liechtenstein

  • No electronic RB database . Information about Liechtensteiner publications issued before 1850 is contained in bibliographies, which are available only in printed form.
  • Responsible institution: the Liechtenstein National Library (Liechtensteinische Landesbibliothek)
  • Selection criteria: all publications originating in Liechtenstein, authored by citizens of Liechtenstein, or dealing with Liechtenstein as a subject matter.

Lithuania

  • No electronic RB database, but information about early prints can be found in the Union Catalogue: https://ibiblioteka.lt/metis/
  • Period covered: from 1547 to date
  • Responsible institution: the Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania
  • Further information, including printed catalogues and bibliographies

Luxembourg

  • Electronic RB database: a-z.lu . Information about Luxembourgish publications issued before 1800 is contained in bibliographies, which are available only in printed form.
  • Period covered: after 1800
  • Identity number: BNL shelfmark
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Luxembourg (Bibliothèque nationale du Luxembourg) — the Books and Brochures Department (Service Livres et brochures)
  • Selection criteria: publications edited and produced in Luxembourg; works published abroad by citizens of Luxembourg, or which are connected with the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg or the former Duchy of Luxembourg.

Malta

  • No electronic RB database, Information about Maltese publications issued before 1850 is contained in bibliographies, which are available only in printed form.
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Malta (Bibljoteka Nazzjonali ta' Malta) — the National Bibliographic Office (L-Uffiċċju Nazzjonali tal-Bibljografija)
  • Selection criteria: works published in Malta, works and parts of works about the Maltese Islands, and works written by Maltese nationals but published abroad.

Moldavia

  • No electronic database or printed bibliographies / catalogues with books to 1850
  • The National Bibliography of Moldavia covers the time period from 1958.
  • Responsible institution: the Book Chamber of Moldavia, the National Library of the Republic of Moldavia – Department of the Bibliographic Research

Monaco

  • No electronic RB database
  • Responsible institution: the Multimedia Library of Monaco (Médiathèque de Monaco)

Montenegro

Norway

  • Electronic RB database: Nasjonalbibliografien
  • Period covered: after 1539
  • Identity number: database number
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Norway (Nasjonalbiblioteket) — the Metadata Standards Development Section
  • Selection criteria: all works published in Norway, as well as material about Norway, Norwegians and Norwegian culture published throughout the world.

North Macedonia

  • No electronic RB database of books printed to 1850
  • Responsible institution: National and University Library “St. Kliment Ohridski” – Bibliographic Center (Библиографски центар).

Northern Ireland

  • No electronic RB database. Information about Northern Irish publications issued before 1850 is contained in bibliographies that encompass the entire printing output of English materials (see UK + Ireland document).
  • Responsible institution: Linen Hall Library — the department of The Northern Ireland Publications Resource (NIPR)
  • Selection criteria: all works published in Northern Ireland.

Netherlands

  • Period covered: before 1801
  • Identity number: STCN + database number
  • Responsible institution: the KB National Library (KB Nationale Bibliotheek)— the Collections Department.
  • Selection criteria: all books printed in the Netherlands or in the Dutch language.

Poland

  • Electronic RB database (books to 1850 are included): https://www.estreicher.uj.edu.pl/home/ (is being supplemented and continued till today)
  • Period covered: 1455-1900
  • Identity number: Estreicher + number of the volume + page number, e.g.: Estreicher XXI, 13.
  • Responsible institution: Estreicher Research Center of the Polish Bibliography at the Jagiellonian University

Portugal

  • No electronic RB database. Information about Portuguese publications issued before 1850 is contained in bibliographies, which are available only in printed form.
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Portugal (Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal) — the department of the Portuguese National Bibliography (Bibliografia Nacional Portuguesa)
  • Selection criteria: works published in Portugal.

Romania

  • Electronic RB database: the Integrated On-line System for the Management of the National Retrospective Bibliography SIMBNR (more information here)
  • Period covered: 1508-1918
  • Identity numbers: BRV (Bibliografia Românească Veche), BRM (Bibliografia Românească Modernă) and PPR (Publicatiunile periodice romanesti)
  • Responsible institution: retrospective bibliography – the Romanian Academy Library (RAL) and current bibliography – the National Library of Romania.
  • Further information, also on the Romanian National Bibliograhy structure

San Marino

  • No electronic RB database. Information about Sammarinese publications issued before 1850 is contained in bibliographies, which are available only in printed form
  • Responsible institution: the State Library of San Marino (Biblioteca di Stato della Repubblica di San Marino)
  • Selection criteria: all works printed in San Marino and authored by citizens of San Marino.

Scotland

Three electronic RB databases for books printed to 1850

  1. Electronic database: search.nls.uk/primo-explore/search?vid=44NLS_NBS
    • Period covered: medieval–present
    • Identity number: NLS shelfmark
    • Responsible institution: the National Library of Scotland (Leabharlann Nàiseanta na h-Alba) — the department of Rare Book Collections
    • Selection criteria: all materials published in Scotland and/or is in language Scots and/or is in language Scottish Gaelic from National Library of Scotland’s main catalogue.
  2. Electronic database: data.nls.uk/data/metadata-collections/boslit/
    • Period covered: 1500–present
    • Identity number: BOSLIT + database number
    • Responsible institution: the National Library of Scotland (Leabharlann Nàiseanta na h-Alba) — the department of Rare Book Collections
    • Selection criteria: all foreign translations of the works of Scottish authors.
  3. Electronic database: nls.uk/catalogues/scottish-books-1505-1700
    • Period covered: 1505–1700
    • Identity number: NLS shelfmark
    • Responsible institution: the National Library of Scotland (Leabharlann Nàiseanta na h-Alba) — the department of Rare Book Collections
    • Selection criteria: works printed in Scotland, or outside Scotland for the Scottish market.

Serbia

  • No RB electronic database
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Serbia (NLS) – the Bibliographical Department
  • Further information, including printed bibliographies

Slovakia

  • No electronic RB database, however Slovak publications issued before 1800 are included in Databáze Knihopis managed by the National Library of the Czech Republic
  • Responsible institution: the Slovak National Library – the Department of Processing of Historical Library Funds and Historical Library Documents
  • Further information, including printed bibliographies

Slovenia

  • Electronic RB database (books to 1850 are not included): http://sb.nuk.uni-lj.si/
  • Period covered: from 1907 to date (there are plans to add pre-1850 materials)
  • Responsible institution:National and University Library (Narodna in Univerzitetna Knjižnica) – the National Bibliographic Center (Nacionalni Bibliografski Center)
  • Further informationslovenia.pdf, including printed bibliographies

Spain

  • Period covered: 15th–20th century
  • Identity number: CCPB + database number
  • Responsible institution: the Ministry of Culture and Sport (Ministerio de Cultura y Deporte) — the department of the Bibliographical Heritage Union Catalogue (Catálogo Colectivo del Patrimonio Bibliográfico)
  • Selection criteria: printed books and other bibliographic collections belonging to Spanish libraries, public or private, which, due to their antiquity, singularity or richness, form part of the Spanish Historical Heritage.

Sweden

  • Electronic RB database: SHBd - Svensk Historisk Bibliografi - digital 1771-2010. Information about Swedish publications issued before 1771 is contained in bibliographies, which are available only in printed form.
  • Period covered: after 1770
  • Identity number: SHB + database number
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Sweden (Kungliga biblioteket) — the National Bibliography section
  • Selection criteria: all works published on Sweden’s history.

Switzerland

  • Period covered: after 1673
  • Identity number: CHBSG + database number
  • Responsible institution: the Swiss National Library (Schweizerische Nationalbibliothek/Bibliothèque nationale suisse) — the Department of Bibliographical Access
  • Selection criteria: all materials published in Switzerland and abroad. The term “Switzerland” means the country’s current territory, irrespective of former political allegiances. Foreign territories linked to the Confederation at the start of the modern era are also included.

Ukraine

  • No electronic RB database
  • Responsible institutions: the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine (NLU) – the Department of the National Bibliography,the Yaroslav Mudryi National Library of Ukraine and the Book Chamber of Ukraine – “legal deposit institution” which provides the retrospective (from 1917) and current bibliography of Ukraine.
  • Further information, including printed bibliographies (many of which are available in PDF format)

United Kingdom and Ireland

Four electronic RB databases for books printed to 1850

  1. Electronic database: Early English Books Online
    • Period covered: 1470–1700
    • Identity number: database number
    • Responsible institution: ProQuest
    • Selection criteria: all materials printed in the British Isles and North America, as well as works in English printed elsewhere.
    • Period covered: 1473–1800
    • Identity number: ESTC + database number
    • Responsible institution: the British Library — the Department of Printed Heritage Collections
    • Selection criteria: all materials printed in Britain, Ireland, overseas territories under British colonial rule, and the United States. Also included is material printed elsewhere which contains significant text in English, Welsh, Irish or Gaelic, as well as any book falsely claiming to have been printed in Britain or its territories.
    • Period covered: 1701–1800
    • Identity number: GALE|CB + database number
    • Responsible institution: Gale
    • Selection criteria: all materials printed in Britain, Ireland, overseas territories under British colonial rule, and the United States. Also included is material printed elsewhere which contains significant text in English, Welsh, Irish or Gaelic, as well as any book falsely claiming to have been printed in Britain or its territories.
    • Period covered: 1801–1919
    • Identity number: database number
    • Responsible institution: ProQuest
    • Selection criteria: all printed works published in Britain, its colonies and the United States of America, all printed works in English wherever published, and all translations from English.

Wales

  • No electronic RB database, Information about Welsh publications issued before 1850 is contained in bibliographies that encompass the entire printing output of English materials (see UK + Ireland document).
  • Responsible institution: the National Library of Wales (Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru)
  • Selection criteria: Welsh biographical works.

Pan-European

Eight electronic RB databases for books printed to 1850

    • Period covered: 1450-1830
    • Identify number: stable record id
    • Responsible institution: CERL
    • Selection criteria: early printed books produced in Europe and/or printed in a European language
    • Period covered: 1450–1650
    • Identity number: USTC + database number
    • Responsible institution: University of St Andrews
    • Selection criteria: all books published in the first age of print in any part of the world where printing with moveable type is known.
    • Period covered: 15th century
    • Identity number: ISTC + database number
    • Responsible institution: the British Library — the Department of Printed Heritage Collections
    • Selection criteria: all works printed from movable type in Europe before 1501.
  1. Electronic database: Inkunabelkatalog INKA
    • Period covered: 15th century
    • Identity number: INKA + database number
    • Responsible institution: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen — the Department of Manuscripts/Historical Prints (Handschriftenabteilung)
    • Selection criteria: all works printed from movable type in Europe before 1501 held in German and Austrian collections.
    • Period covered: 15th century
    • Identity number: GW + database number
    • Responsible institution: Berlin State Library (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin) — the subdivision Union Catalogue of Incunabula/Incunabula Collection (Referats Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke/Inkunabelsammlung)
    • Selection criteria: all works printed from movable type in Europe before 1501.
  2. Electronic database: EEB - Early European Books
    • Period covered: before 1701
    • Identity number: database number
    • Responsible institution: ProQuest
    • Selection criteria: all works printed in Europe before 1701.
  3. Electronic database: EEB GEO
    • Period covered: 1450–1700
    • Identity number: database number
    • Responsible institution: ProQuest
    • Selection criteria: all works printed in British Isles and Europe from 1450–1700, combining the databases of Early English Books Online and Early European Books.
  4. Electronic database: https://www.europeana.eu/en }|Europeana]]
    • Period covered: all periods
    • Identity number: database number
    • Responsible institution: Europeana Foundation
    • Selection criteria: digital cultural heritage of Europe.

Reading List

here we will list publications about RBs and related issues (e.g. Fingerprints)

Members of the RB Working Group

Claudia Fabian, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München
Flavia Bruni, University of Chieti-Pescara
Marieke van Delft, formerly of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, the National Library of the Netherlands, The Hague
Esther van Gelder, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, the National Library of the Netherlands, The Hague
Anette Hagan, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh
Andrea Jelínková and Vojtěch Šícha, Department of Historical Bibliography of the Library of the Czech Academy of Sciences
Marian Lefferts, CERL
Matthias Reif, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München
Peter Sjökvist, University Library Uppsala, Uppsala
Olga Tkachuk, Ossolineum Library, Wroclaw

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